The Cherokee were nothing like the savage, nomadic, hunter-gatherers portrayed in movies and TV. The Cherokee never lived in tipis; they have never worn feathered headdresses (except maybe to please tourists); they didn’t ride horses until the Europeans brought them over; there were no Cherokee princesses; they didn’t follow the buffalo around; the “squaw” didn’t humbly follow ten paces behind her husband; they didn’t worship a panoply of gods; they weren’t, by any definition of the word, savages.
The turmoil of the Cherokee–American wars resulted in displacement of vast numbers of Cherokee removed westward, both voluntarily and involuntarily, from their more easterly ancient homes. Also, European traders in the Southeast—mostly Scottish, but also English, Irish, German, even French—had married Cherokee women as well as those of other tribes for several decades. Their children belonged to the mother and her clan and were considered Cherokee.
The first change legislated by the National Council of the Cherokee Nation actually took place a few years before the beginning of the 19th century, when in 1797 it ruled that clans no longer had to redress deaths that were judged to be accidental, and also abolished the practice of substituting one clan member for another to answer for the death of a person from another clan if the person so culpable could not be obtained. The Ridge, who had joined the Council as the representative from Pine Log town, the previous year, initiated these changes.
The Ridge also helped bring about the second major revision to the Cherokee “Blood Law”, which was provoked largely by the assassination of Doublehead at the Hiwassee Garrison near the Cherokee Agency (now Calhoun, Tennessee) in August 1807. The stated reason was Doublehead’s involvement in making private deals to sell off Cherokee land. The killers were he and Alexander Sanders, the two of them having to stand in for James Vann, who was too drunk to accomplish the task.
Much more wide-sweeping changes came with the first printed law in the Cherokee Nation, passed by the National Council on September 11, 1808. A major reform designed and pushed forward by the young chiefs’ “Cherokee Triumvirate” (James Vann, Charles R. Hicks, and The Ridge), its primary prescriptive feature was setting up a Light Horse Guard of several teams over the whole Nation to act as “regulating parties”, and also provided for a system of patrilineal inheritance alongside the matrilineal inheritance system of the clans. Major Ridge served as the first commander of the Light Horse Guard. Proscriptively, it further restricted clan retaliation.
In the Act of Oblivion on April 18, 1810, the National Council completely eradicated clan retaliation from Cherokee law, repudiated matrilineal inheritance, and referred to husbands/fathers in the Nation as the heads of household.
In 1825 the Cherokee Council passed a law admitting children of a mixed marriages in which the father was Cherokee and the mother white to the tribe as if their mother were Cherokee.
October 13, 2018
The president had issued orders to all armed forces to stay alarmed and run an operation on the co-leader of Crenshaw Mafias so that her deal with Mr.Victor goes on peacefully.
The co-leader of the Crenshaw mafias was severly injured by the commander in a fight near the meeting place which resulted in him to flee away. President had signed the deal with Mr.Victor successfully and has brought the two most powerful battleships in the San Andreas navy.
October 10, 2018
A meeting was held between the Minister of human resource and development and the president about increased deaths due to abuse and overuse of drugs in Los Santos.
The meeting was drawn to a conclusion of establishing more rehabs for teens and legalising drugs in limited amount along with introduction of licenses for drug dealers.
Hundreds or thousands of Chinese family names have been historically used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic groups in mainland China, Taiwan, and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames, family names (xìng) and clan names (shì), existed.Prior to the Warring States Period (fifth century BC), only the royal family and the aristocratic elite could generally take surnames. Historically there was also difference between xing and shi. Xing were surnames held by the immediate royal family. They generally are composed of a nü (meaning “female”) radical which suggests that they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou. The “female” radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe. This combination seems to designate specifically a female and could mean “lady of such or such clan”. The structure of the xing sinogram could reflect the fact that in the royal court of Zhou, at least in the beginning, only females (wives married into the Zhou family from other clans) were called by their birth clan name, while the men were usually designated by their title or fief.
Prior to the Qin Dynasty (third century BC) China was largely a feudal society. As fiefdoms were divided and subdivided among descendants, so additional sub-surnames known as shi were created to distinguish between different seniority of lineages among the nobles though in theory they shared the same ancestor. In this way, a nobleman would hold a shi and a xing.
After the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames gradually devolved to the lower classes and the difference between xing and shi blurred.
Throughout most of Chinese history, surnames have served sociological functions. Because of their association with the aristocratic elite in their early developments, surnames were often used as symbols of nobility. Thus nobles would use their surnames to be able to trace their ancestry and compete for seniority in terms of hereditary rank. hinese emperors sometimes passed their own surnames to subjects as honors. Unlike European practice in which some surnames are obviously noble, Chinese emperors and members of the royal family had regular surnames except in cases where they came from non-Han ethnic groups. This was a result of Chinese imperial theory in which a commoner could receive the Mandate of Heaven and become emperor. Upon becoming emperor, the emperor would retain his original surname. Also as a consequence, many people also had the same surname as the emperor, but had no direct relation to the royal family.
The Tang Dynasty was the last period when the great aristocratic families, mostly descended from the nobility of pre-Qin states, held significant centralized and regional power. The surname was used as a source of prestige and common allegiance.During the Song Dynasty, ordinary clans began to organize themselves into corporate units and produce genealogies. This trend was led by the poet Su Shi and his father. As competition for resources and positions in the bureaucracy intensified, individuals used their common ancestry and surname to promote solidarity. They established schools to educate their sons and held common lands to aid disadvantaged families. Ancestral temples were also erected to promote surname identity. Clan cohesion was usually encouraged by successive imperial governments since it aided in social stability.As a result of the importance of surnames, rules and traditions regarding family and marriage grew increasingly complex. For example, in Taiwan, there is a clan with the so-called “double Liao” surname. The story is that “Chang Yuan-zih of Liao’s in Siluo married the only daughter of Liao San-Jiou-Lang who had no son, and he took the oath that he should be in the name of Liao when alive and should be in the name of Chang after death.” In some places, there are additional taboos against marriage between people of the same surname, considered to be closely related. Conversely, in some areas, there are different clans with the same surname which are not considered to be related, but even in these cases surname exogamy is generally practiced.
1.Shǐ(史)- Historian in the clan who guides the new members and gives them the knowledge of clan.
2.Cāng (倉)- Granary manager who keeps the record of the grains and food in the clan, has contacts with farmers, exporters and factory owners.
3.Jiàn (諫)- Adviser is the wisest one and the most patient one in the clan who advises the king in internal and external affairs.
4.Shàngguān (上官)- High official is the second most powerful person after the king. Supervises the works in the clan and has full control of military.
5.Sītú (司徒)- Minister of treasurey who keeps records of all the expenses and manages the loot operations.
6.Wáng (王)- King of the clan.